In Kindergarten grade, we use the program Investigations In Number, Data, and Space 3 to help students build a solid fountation in mathematics. A majority of instructional time in Kindergarten will be used to know number names, counting, comparing numbers, understanding addition and subtraction, describing and comparing measurable attributes, classifying and counting objects, as well as identifying, describing, analyzing, comparing, and composing shapes.
Unit 1: Counting People, Sorting Buttons
Unit 2: Counting Quantities, Comparing Lengths
Unit 3: Make a Shape, Fill a Hexagon
Unit 4: Collect, Count, and Measure
Unit 5: Build a Block, Build a Wall
Unit 6: How Many Now?
Unit 7: How Many Noses? How Many Eyes?
Unit 8: Ten Frames and Teen Numbers
- Counting People, Sorting Buttons: This unit introduces the processes, structures, and materials that form the basis of math instruction throughout the year and establishes the mathematical community. It also introduces the Classroom Routines that develop and reinforce concepts and ideas in the Number and Operations, Data, and Geometry strands of Investigations
- Counting Quantities, Comparing Lengths: This unit focuses on connecting number names, numerals, and quantities; counting and developing visual images of quantities up to 10; comparing and ordering two or more amounts; and describing and measuring the length of objects by direct comparison. Students develop strategies for accurately counting quantities up to 10 as they create counting books and do activities and play games that involve counting and counting out sets of up to 10. Students compare sets to determine which has more and directly compare the length of objects to determine which is longer.
- Make a Shape, Fill a Hexagon: The focus of this unit is on identifying, describing, and comparing attributes of 2-D shapes, naming shapes, considering the features of specific shapes (e.g., a triangle has three sides and three vertices), and composing and decomposing shapes from and into smaller shapes. Students look for 2-D shapes in their environment and use materials such as pattern blocks, Geoboards and clay to make shapes. They use paper shapes to make a mural, fill puzzle outlines using pattern blocks, and discuss different ways to compose a hexagon using pattern blocks shapes. Throughout the unit, students hear and use positional language to describe the location of the shapes they are working with.
- Collect, Count, and Measure: The focus of this unit is on counting and representing sets of up to 15 objects, applying counting skills by using multiple units to measure and compare lengths, decomposing numbers in many different ways, and beginning to make sense of the operations of addition and subtraction. Students count as they measure and compare the lengths of shoes, strips of tape, and other objects. They act out story problems and play games that involve counting, comparing, and finding the total when a small amount is added or taken away. Students investigate combinations of numbers as they arrange tiles and explore different ways a set of two-color counters can land. They consider how notation can represent these situations.
- Build a Block, Build a Wall: The focus of this unit is on identifying, describing, and comparing attributes of 3-D shapes (e.g., a cube has 6 congruent faces), naming 3-D shapes, constructing 3-D shapes, and composing and decomposing 3-D shapes from and into smaller shapes. Students look for 3-D shapes in their environment and describe and compare the shapes they find. They make 3-D shapes using connecting cubes, clay, and Geoblocks and think about how shapes are the same and different.
- How Many Now?: The focus of this unit is on counting sets of up to 20 objects; decomposing the numbers to 10 in a variety of ways (e.g., 7 can be seen as 5 and 2 or as 3 and 2 and 2); using notation to describe addition and subtraction situations; finding and exploring combinations of a number; and solving addition and subtraction story problems. A variety of contexts are used to help students develop accurate counting strategies including Inventory Bags, measuring, games, and the Counting Jar. Students revisit addition and subtraction situations, including story problems, which they model, solve and represent on paper.
- How Many Noses? How Many Eyes?: The focus of this unit is on describing attributes of objects and data, and using this information to sort, classify, count, order, compare, and represent data, and to use this data to model real-world problems with mathematics. It also extends work with counting by 1s and introduces students to the counting sequences of 2s and 10s. Students sort people and objects according to specific attributes, and count and compare the number in each group. They conduct their own surveys, solve problems using attendance data, and count the number of people, noses, and eyes in a variety of ways.
- Ten Frames and Teen Numbers: The focus of this unit is on extending the counting sequence to 100, including counting from numbers other than 1 and by 10s, adding and subtracting in a variety of contexts, and making sense of the teen numbers as a group of ten ones and some number of leftover ones. Students solve story problems, relate a problem to the equation it represents, and make up and solve stories for given expressions. Students develop fluency with addition and subtraction within 5, find the complement of 10 when given one addend, and work with the teen numbers in ways that highlights that those numbers are composed of ten ones and some number of ones. Students use their hands, and then a pan balance, to directly compare the weight of two objects.